Late Miocene ostracods from the Fujikotogawa Formation, northern Japan – with reference to cold water species involved with trans-Arctic interchange
Abstract. Seventy-eight ostracod species belonging to 38 genera are recognized from the late Miocene Fujikotogawa Formation (c. 7–8 Ma), 40 km NE of Akita City, northern Japan. Some 30–40% of the ostracod species belong to the cold water groups (circumpolar and cryophilic species) reported from Plio-Pleistocene formations yielding the Omma-Manganji Fauna, the name given by Otuka (1939) to the Pliocene Japanese cold water molluscan fauna. This study demonstrates that most ostracod species distinguished in deposits yielding the Omma-Manganji Fauna had already appeared in the late Miocene. At least 13 of the ostracod species have been reported from both the Arctic and northern Atlantic Oceans, implying migration from the Pacific to the northern Atlantic through the Arctic after the Bering Strait had been breached. The 13 circumpolar, nine cryophilic and four endemic cold water species are illustrated, with brief taxonomic notes.