Biosequence stratigraphical and palaeoenvironmental findings from the Cretaceous through Tertiary succession, Central Indus Basin, Pakistan
Abstract. Integrated analysis of foraminiferal and palynological data from the Duljan-1 well, Central Indus Basin, Pakistan, is used to identify critical surfaces (candidate sequence boundaries (SB) and maximum flooding surfaces (MFS)) and construct a biosequence stratigraphical framework. Within the Barremian through Bartonian–Priabonian? succession 15 depositional sequences have been recognized, each with a candidate MFS. These biosequences are shown to equate with the local lithostratigraphy and tentatively with the ‘global’ large-scale depositional cycles of Haq et al. (1987). Detailed dating has enabled seven candidate MFS to be tentatively equated with MFS identified on the nearby Arabian plate (Sharland et al., 2001). A combination of detailed age dating and palaeobathymetric determinations indicates significant basin uplift and erosion at end Cretaceous and end Eocene times, the latter coinciding with closure of Neo-Tethys. Smaller-scale unconformities are also noted. Multi-disciplinary palaeoenvironmental interpretations enable recognition of detailed changes in water mass conditions. Palynological data suggest these changes result from variations in terrestrial/freshwater input, though evidence of periodically low oxygen bottom water conditions/shallowing of the oxygen minimum zone, possibly ‘Oceanic Anoxic Event-2’ (OAE-2; late Cenomanian–Turonian) is suggested as a further control.