Articles | Volume 35, issue 1
01 Jan 2016
 | 01 Jan 2016

Recent invasion of the foraminifer Nonionella stella Cushman & Moyer, 1930 in northern European waters: evidence from the Skagerrak and its fjords

Irina Polovodova Asteman and Joachim Schönfeld

Keywords: biological invasions, protozoans, environmental change, benthic foraminifera, propagules

Abstract. The eastern Pacific benthic foraminifer Nonionella stella Cushman & Moyer, 1930 was recorded for the first time in the Skagerrak (North Sea) and its fjords. In this short note we evaluate its migration, considering both dispersal by propagules and ship ballast tanks. We suggest that the predominantly southward surface currents along the western European seaboard and Morocco would impede a wide-range dispersal of N. stella propagules and hypothesize transportation by ship ballast tanks as the possible vector of N. stella immigration into northern European seas.